Marketing Terms offers a detailed list of marketing terms.

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Term Definition

A distribution channel function where organizations purchase products from supplying firms with the primary intention of redistributing, often in smaller quantities, to other organizations such as retailers.

Wholesaler-Sponsored Channel

A form of contractual dependent channel arrangement where a wholesaler brings together and manages many independent retailers which may include having the retailers sharing the same name.


A business classification that includes resellers who, in general, engage in distribution activities that come between a supplying party (e.g., manufacturer) and a purchasing party (e.g., retailer) but who do not sell to the final consumer.

White Papers

Detailed, sometimes highly researched, documents intended to establish credibility or offer insight into the capabilities of a company and its products or services.


A offer, often associated with a purchase, in which a marketer provides customers a level of protection, beyond a Guarantee period, that covers repair or replacement of certain product components if found defective within some identified time frame.

Warehouse Stores

Retail format represented by a form of mass discounter that often provides even lower prices than traditional mass discounters usually by requiring buyers to make purchases in large quantities and whose outlets offer few services, limited product selection and barebones store design.


A product storage facility that often serves a key role in distribution strategy by helping marketers meet market demand.

VoIP - Voice over Internet Protocol

Advancement in telephony that allows for telephone calls (e.g., customer service) to be delivered over the Internet at low cost and with multiple phones sharing the same connection.

Video News Release (also Audio News Release)

A media relations tools used as part of Public Relations in which prerecorded video, often highlighting a company and its products, is distributed to news media for the purpose of being included within media programming such as within news stories.


Retail format represented by automated methods (i.e., via vending machine) for allowing consumers to make purchases and quickly acquire products.

Variable Costs

An important component in determining the cost of a product, these costs are directly associated with production and sales and, consequently, may change as the level of production or sales changes.


The perception of benefits received for what someone must give up to obtain the benefits.

Upfront Advertising Purchase

The name given to television advertising purchasing, where television networks make certain ad space available many months before a television program will be broadcast.  This differs from scatter advertising purchasing, where ad space is withheld until a time that is closer to when a show will air.

Unsought Products

A category of consumer products in which consumer purchasing is normally unplanned but occurs as a result of marketer’s actions, such as a salesperson’s persuasion or purchase discounts (e.g., coupon), which leads to impulse purchasing.

Unitary Demand

Refers to market conditions where a certain percentage change (positive or negative) in the price of a product results in an equal and opposite percentage change in demand (i.e., purchases) of the product.